For 2020 the OSCE will be replaced by a new Remote Clinical Exam (RCE)
The Remote Clinical Exam (RCE) is a revised format of the Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) introduced by the RACGP in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The RCE is designed to test the same skills as the OSCE.
Like all RACGP Fellowship exams, the RCE aims to assess your competency for unsupervised general practice in Australia. The exam attempts to replicate a consultation and allows candidates to demonstrate their clinical skills, communication skills and professional attitudes.
Want to learn more? Watch the following video or read on below.
Here is what you need to know!
The RCE will be made up of at least 12 short stations, delivered in sets of 4 cases over 3 days.
The stations can vary significantly. Examples of the types of things you may be asked to do include:
- Take a focused history, perform a focused examination, and explain the management to a patient.
- Explain results to a patient.
- Counsel a patient about a particular issue, or manage a patient upset about a health issue.
- Critically appraise an article, or explain evidence for or against something to a patient.
- There may be a communication station involving an upset, angry, or non-compliant patient.
- There is usually one viva station where no patient is present, and you have a discussion with another doctor about the management of a particular issue or about a medico-legal or ethical issue. Vivas are often used to test knowledge that cannot be easily tested in the usual station format.
- And there is usually one Aboriginal health station.
The rating areas which can be included in the marking guide are:
- Communication and rapport
- Inter-professional and communication skills
- History taking
- Physical examination
- Public health issues
- Procedural skills
- Ethical and medico-legal issues
- Critical appraisal skills
Not every station will cover all of these marking areas. However, you need to think broadly when approaching a clinical case, so you don’t miss out on marks by focusing all your attention on only one or two aspects of the case.
*Do not forget to read up on ethical and medico-legal issues prior to the exam.
For example, we have noticed that many candidates in palliative care cases struggle to explain concepts such as the Advanced Care Directives, Substitute Decision-Makers and Enduring Power of Attorney to the patient and their partner. Similarly, remember to read up on critical appraisal skills and concepts used in discussing evidence-based medicine, as these are commonly tested in the OSCE / RCE.
*Use your reading time wisely.
Read the question carefully and plan your time in the station. Identify what you are required to do, and make sure you spend time in the station on each of these areas. If you are asked to take a history and provide a management plan but use all 8 minutes taking a history, you are missing out on many potential marks in that station.
Communication and rapport
Here are some tips and tricks to maximise your marks in this area:
- Unless it is a viva case, direct your attention towards the patient, not the examiner.
- Avoid using jargon when speaking to the patient, adapt your language to reflect the patient’s age. If you accidentally use medical jargon when talking to the patient, quickly clarify in plain language what you mean.
- In a viva station you should treat the examiner as a professional medical colleague and your language should reflect this.
- Do not interrupt the patient! The person role-playing the patient usually has a script, with certain phrases they will begin with and respond with when asked appropriate questions by you. If you interrupt them you can cut them off from telling you vital information.
- Be empathetic and involve the patient in decision making. Asking them questions like “How does this impact you?”, “Does that make sense?”, and “Are you happy with that plan?” helps build rapport. We commonly notice candidates can be very prescriptive when providing management plans, but forget to ask the patient if the options presented are actually acceptable to them.
For those stations that require you to take a history, you need to make sure it is tailored, relevant, organised and to the point. 8 minutes is not long! You need to obtain the information logically and succinctly.
Start with open questions:
- “How can I help you today?”
- “Please tell me more”
- “Is there anything else you wanted to tell me?”
You can then move to closed questioning as appropriate, which might cover your ‘red flag’ questions, or a quick systems review if appropriate. In some cases, candidates spend too long on history-taking and do not have time to progress to the physical examination, investigations, or management parts of the station.
The person role-playing the patient will have history and phrases they will freely give you, for example, “I have a headache”, but they may also have information they are only allowed to tell you if you specifically ask the question, for example: “I have been vomiting as well, and yes, the headache is worse with lying down”.
Also think about age-related questions, for example with a teenager you may use the HEADSS model and ask about: Home, school, activities, alcohol, drugs, smoking, sexuality, suicidality, and depression.
Most of us feel more comfortable performing the examination than asking for the findings. Try to still think of the examination in logical steps, and ask for the findings, just as you would look for them if performing it in real life. It is a good idea to have a structure in mind when asking for examination findings, such as general appearance of the patient, vital signs (you need to ask for these separately), and then move onto the relevant findings as appropriate to the station.
Basic surgery tests are considered part of the examination in the OSCE / RCE and examples include, urine pregnancy test, ECG, finger prick blood glucose, INR, spirometry, dipstick urinalysis and K10. If relevant to the situation you may ask for these results.
Diagnosis and investigations
After taking a history and performing an examination in general practice, we usually have some idea of our differential diagnosis. The OSCE / RCE is no different.
When formulating your differential diagnosis, think of both the most likely diagnosis, but also consider those conditions that you don’t want to miss. Murtagh’s diagnostic strategy can be useful here:
- What is the most likely or common diagnosis?
- What is the most important diagnosis not to miss?
- Are there any pitfalls or masquerades?
- Are there any hidden agendas?
Ensure that you remember to explain your differential diagnosis to the patient if you are asked to do this in the station.
Your investigation list should then be tailored to your differentials, and you should have clear reasons for why you are ordering a test. The patient in the OSCE / RCE may even ask you why you are ordering a specific test.
Investigations need to be relevant, cost-effective, and targeted. Think to yourself “how will the result of this test change my management?”. You will not score marks for requesting a long list of investigations that are not relevant or targeted.
When it comes to management, the first step is to give the patient a clear, plain language explanation of the problem. Always make sure you check the patient’s ideas and understanding of the problem. Then outline your management plan.
A good tip is to list off your management steps, to make sure the examiner knows your plan, then come back to each point separately and expand on them. This way if you run out of time, you have at least mentioned all the aspects of your plan and can be awarded marks in these areas.
Always make sure you consider, emergency management (if applicable); short term management including treatment and safety netting; and long term management such as preventative health and health promotion.
Your short term management can include pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures, it may include referrals, and you may also need to consider public health issues. If you do refer to allied health or another specialist, be very clear with what you are referring the patient for, just saying ‘referral’ is not enough to be awarded marks.
Always give a very clear safety netting plan. When should the patient come back? What happens if they get worse? What happens if they get side effects to your treatments?
Remember not only are the patients ‘acting’ but so are you. You can give ‘virtual’ patient education handouts on any topic you wish!
It is wise to end stations with the follow-up plan, safety netting advice and asking if the patient has any questions. Also make sure to check back in with the patient about their understanding and agreeance to the plan.
Your exam mindset
During the exam itself, remember that the examiners are not trying to trick you. So approach it like you would a day in general practice, they really just want to see how you approach problems. Take note of cues given to you by the patient, if the patient is clearly indicating you should move on, by telling you something is ‘fine’ or ‘doesn’t bother them’ – then move on! If the patient is consistently telling you ‘I don’t know’ or they look confused or seem vague when you are asking them questions, it is probably an indication that you are on the wrong track!
There may be stations where you finish early, this does happen. It is worth reading the question again and making sure you have covered all the points that have been asked of you. You can also check any notes you made during reading time, and make sure you haven’t missed anything. You can check back in with the patient and ask them if there is anything else that they wanted to address today. You can also always talk about preventive health and health promotion areas such as SNAP or checking that appropriate screening tests are up-to-date (for example, cervical screening, bowel screening). Remember once you leave a station you cannot re-enter it.
The best way to prepare for the OSCE / RCE is practice, under timed conditions.
Practice scenarios with your study group, with colleagues and even with family members. ModMed’s Dr OSCE program provides a practice clinical exam delivered via video conference with cases designed to assess clinical competence remotely. Our Medical Educators are experienced in delivering cases using this format, and will be able to provide you with detailed personalised feedback and advice on how to perform your best in a remote clinical assessment. Additional practice cases can also be found in “The general practice exam book” which has been published by GPRA and in Susan Wearne’s “Clinical Cases for General Practice Exams” book. You could also ask your supervisor or a colleague to observe you consulting so that you can receive feedback on your communication skills and consulting style.
We wish you all the very best in your ongoing exam preparation, and every success in the exam and your future careers!